Glossary

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10 years 6 months ago #1 by Erwin Vos
Erwin Vos created the topic: Glossary
Aftertouch A MIDI message...

AftertouchA MIDI message sent from some MIDI keyboards when a key is further depressed at the bottom of its travel — in other words, you play a note and hold it and then press the key down harder to produce the aftertouch message. Aftertouch is a continuous controlling message often applied to volume or filter frequency in a MIDI synthesizer, and is applied equally to all notes listening to a particular MIDI channel. It's also called Channel Pressure or Monophonic Aftertouch. Not all synthesizers send or receive aftertouch. Aftertouch is a two-byte message.

Assignable Controller wheelThe rightmost control wheel on the LN-4, found in the Left Hand Controls section. This wheel is often used as a Mod Wheel, to control modulation amount in a MIDI synthesizer, but can be assigned to any MIDI controller number.

AttenuationIn MIDI usage, reducing the volume or loudness of a MIDI synthesizer's audio output. Attenuation Programming Function One of the Programming Functions in the LN-4. It allows you to set a different attenuation value, or volume reduction, for each of the LN-4fs four outputs, which lets you balance synth levels against each other. Each synth to be attenuated must be set to receive MIDI Volume messages and to apply those messages to loudness or level.

BitThe smallest unit of digital data. Bit is a contraction of binary digit. It can only have one of two different values, 1 or 0. Bits are grouped together to form bytes, which are the basic information unit in MIDI systems.

Blue Right Arrow switchOne of the programming controls in the LN-4. In Programming Mode, the Shift switch becomes the Blue Right Arrow switch and is used to select one of the four outputs for programming. Pressing the Blue Right Arrow switch steps you consecutively through the four outputs, from left to right. The output selection 'wraps around1 to Output 1 after Output 4 is reached.

ByteThe basic information unit in MIDI. A MIDI byte consists of ten bits of information, grouped together into a unit. This unit contains the information used to control a MIDI device.

Channel PressureSee Aftertouch.

Continuous controllerA MIDI control device, usually a wheel, knob, or slider, that produces varying MIDI data depending on the position of the controller.The controller can usually be assigned to control different MIDI parameters.

Continuous controller messageThe MIDI message produced when a continuous controller is moved. Continuous controller messages are assigned by number to vary specific functions in a MIDI synth, such as volume, panning, etc. Continuous Controller assignment numbers range from 0 to 63. Continuous Controllers are three-byte messages.

Controller Assignment Programming FunctionOne of the Programming Functions in the LN-4. It allows you to assign a different MIDI Controller number to the Assignable Wheel for each of the LN- 4's outputs.

Daisy chainA MIDI synth configuration in which synths are connected for MIDI control by patching the MIDI Thru of the first synth in the chain to the MIDI In of the next synth, and so on.

Data byteThe unit of information in a MIDI word which carries the actual value applied to a MIDI parameter.

DelayA hardware or software device that stores audio or MIDI information for playback at a later lime, usually within a few seconds. Delay times are commonly measured in milliseconds. Delay also refers to slow-downs in MIDI data transmission, caused by excessively daisy-chaining synths together or by slow receiver or transmitter processing.

DIN connectorThe five-pin European connector used in MIDI cables and MIDI input and output jacks.

Down Arrow switchOne of the programming controls in the LN-4. In Programming Mode, the Hold switch becomes the Down Arrow switch and is used to scroll down through values used in the various Programming Functions. Values for Programming Functions are selected by using the Up Arrow and Down Arrow switches.

Exit switchOne of the programming controls in the LN-4. In Programming Mode, Switch number 8 becomes the Exit switch and is used to leave Programming Mode and re-enter Performance Mode.

High Limit Programming FunctionOne of the Programming Functions in the LN-4. It allows you to set the highest note sent from each of the four outputs.Playing a note above the High Limit value will not send a Note On for that note. The High Limit Programming Function is used with the Low Limit Programming Function to set splits and zones in the LN-4.

Hold switchOne of the performance controls in the LN-4. It is used to sustain notes on the keyboard. Playing and holding notes on the keyboard and then pressing the Hold switch will cause those notes to sustain to their fullest extents, while new notes played will not sustain.

Interlync cableThe special cable, manufactured by Lync Systems, used to connect the LN-4 keyboard to the LP-4 Power Module. It's available in 20 and 50 foot lengths.

Inverted zoneA special keyboard configuration created when the Low Limit Programming Function is set to a higher value than the High Limit Programming Function. Playing a note within the inverted zone will not send a Note On for that note. Playing a note outside the inverted zone will send a Note On for that note.

Key PressureSee Polyphonic Aftertouch.

LEDAn acronym for Light Emitting Diode. LEDs are the red lights on the LN-4's faceplate which indicate function status.

Local Control Off A MIDI parameter which disconnects a synthesizer's keyboard from its sound- producing section. A synth operated in Local Control Off mode will still send MIDI data from its keyboard, but the keyboard will not directly play the synth. This is useful for using a keyboard synth as a Master Controller while the sound-producing section functions as a MIDI sound module.

Low Limit Programming FunctionOne of the Programming Functions in the LN-4. It allows you to set the lowest note sent from each of the four outputs. Playing a note below the Low Limit value will not send a Note On for that note. The Low Limit Programming Function is used with the High Limit Programming Function to set splits and zones in the LN-4.

Master ProgramA complete configuration of the functions of the LN-4. This includes which outputs are enabled, MIDI channels, program change numbers, velocity curves, transpositions, synth levels, keyboard splits and zones, and Assignable Wheel assignments. There are 64 Master Programs available in memory. Master Programs are recalled by entering the Program's number with the numbered switches on the LN-4’s faceplate.

Master Program Decrement switchOne of the performance controls in the LN-4. It's the switch in the Left Hand Controls section nearest to you as you face the keyboard. Pressing this switch steps you down through Master Program numbers.

Master Program DisplayThe two-character seven-segment LED display on the LN-4's faceplate which shows you Master Program numbers in Performance Mode and Programming Function abbreviations and values in Programming Mode.

Master Program Increment switchOne of the performance controls in the LN-4. It's the switch in the Left Hand Controls section furthest away from you as you face the keyboard.Pressing this switch steps you up through Master Program numbers.

MicroprocessorA small, specialized computer used to control electronic hardware devices. All MIDI devices contain one or more microprocessors which produce and interpret MIDI data.

MIDIA communication standard for electronic musical instruments. MIDI is an acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface.

MIDI channelOne of 16 discrete data streams in a MIDI data flow.

MIDI Channel Programming FunctionOne of the Programming Functions in the LN-4. It allows you to set the MIDI channel on which information is sent for each of the LN-4's outputs.

MIDI implementation chartA specific chart or diagram, included with most MIDI devices, that indicates which MIDI messages are sent, received, and ignored by the device.

MIDI mergerA MIDI hardware device which takes two or more MIDI signals and mixes, or merges, them together to produce one signal. A MIDI merger is often used in a MIDI setup which includes more than one master keyboard controller, so that two keyboards can control one synth or so that two different keyboards in a setup can be used without repatching MIDI cables.

MIDI messageAny discrete "package" of information transmitted or received by a MIDI device. "MIDI Message" refers to any complete MIDI command.

MIDI modeOne of the four main ways in which a MIDI device can receive information. The four MIDI modes are: Mode 1 — Omni On Poly (Omni Mode), in which the receiving synth will play information on any MIDI channel and will play more than one note at once; Mode 2 — Omni On Mono, in which the receiving synth will play information on any MIDI channel and will play only one note at a time; Mode 3 — Omni Off Poly (Poly Mode), in which the receiving synth will play information on only one MIDI channel and will play more than one note at once; and Mode 4 — Omni Off Mono (Mono Mode), in which the receiving synth will play information on only one MIDI channel and will play only one note at a time.

MIDI Specification (MIDI Spec)The document published by the International MIDI Association which contains the detailed specifications for the MIDI language to which all MIDI manufacturers must adhere — in theory, at least.

MIDI stackAn arrangement of MIDI keyboards and modules in which playing one keyboard causes many different MIDI devices to sound together, creating a layered effect.

MIDI VelocityA MIDI message which translates the speed with which a key on a MIDI keyboard is depressed as loudness and/or timbre information for a MIDI synthesizer.

MIDI VolumeA MIDI message that tells a synthesizer at what maximum loudness it can play its sounds.

Mod wheelA MIDI control device, usually found on MIDI keyboards, which when rotated sends a MIDI message telling the receiving synth to increase the amount of modulation applied to a sound.

Mono Mode One of the MIDI Modes. Mono Mode is the name commonly applied to Mode4, Omni Off Mono, in which the receiving synth will play information on only one MIDI channel and will play only one note at a time.

Monophonic AftertouchSee Aftertouch.

Multi Mode A variation on Mode 4 (Mono Mode), in which the receiving synth can be set to play different polyphonic sounds on different MIDI channels.

Multi-timbral synthesizerA synthesizer capable of playing more than one sound or program at a time. Usually such synths are capable of being operated in Multi Mode.

Note offA MIDI message which tells the receiving synth to stop playing a particular note. See below. Note Off is a three-byte message.

Note onA MIDI message which tells the receiving synth to start playing a particular note. See above. Note On is a three-byte message.

OctalA numbering system used in some MIDI synths based on eight numbers, rather than the ten numbers used in decimal systems. The numbers used in an octal-based system are 1 through 8.

Omni Mode One of the MIDI Modes. Omni Mode is the name commonly applied to Mode 1, Omni On Poly, in which the receiving synth will play information on any MIDI channel and will play more than one note at a time.

Output Enable ModeOne of the operation modes of the LN-4, entered by pressing the Output Enable switch so that its LED lights up. In Output Enable mode, you can choose whether or not an output will send MIDI data by pressing one of the first four numbered switches, so that its LED is lit or not. When an output's LED is lit, MIDI data will be sent from that output. When an outputs LED is not lit, MIDI data will not be sent from that output.

Output Enable switchOne of the programming controls in the LN-4. Pressing the Output Enable switch, so that its LED lights up, allows you to enter Output Enable mode and enable outputs for MIDI transmission.

Panic ButtonOne of the performance controls in the LN-4. Pressing the Hold switch without holding down any keys on the keyboard causes it to function as the Panic Button. It is used in performance when stuck or hanging MIDI notes occur. Pressing the Panic Button causes the LN-4 to send 16 All Notes Off messages, one on each MIDI channel; 2,048 Note Off messages, one for each MIDI note number on each channel; 16 Sustain Off messages, one for each channel; 16 Pitch Wheel to Center messages, one for each channel; and 16 Modulation Off messages, one for each channel. All these messages are sent from each output of the Power Module.

ParameterAny variable function in a MIDI device.

PatchA term often used to refer to a synthesizer program or sound.

Performance ModeOne of the operating modes of the LN-4. Performance Mode is the normal or default mode for the LN-4, in which playing usually takes place.

Pitch Bend wheel One of the performance controls in the LN-4. It is the leftmost of the two wheels found in the Left Hand Controls section, and is permanently set to produce MIDI Pitch Change messages when moved. The range of pitch bend is set in the individual synth.The wheel's pitch bend direction is reversible.

Poly ModeOne of the MIDI Modes. Poly Mode is the name commonly applied to Mode 3, Omni Off Poly, in which the receiving synth will play information on only one MIDI channel and will play more than one note at a time.

Polyphonic AftertouchA Continuous Controller MIDI message produced by some MIDI keyboards when a key is depressed at the bottom of its travel. Polyphonic aftertouch is only applied to the key or keys which are being depressed, rather than to all notes on a MIDI channel, as is the case with monophonic aftertouch. Relatively few MIDI devices currently send or receive polyphonic aftertouch, also called Key Pressure.

Power ModuleThe rack-mount module to which the LN-4 keyboard is connected. It supplies power to the keyboard and routes the four MIDI outputs to your synths.

ProgramA setting of synthesizer parameters that produces a particular sound, stored in a memory location in the synthesizer and assigned a number. When the synthesizer receives this number, coded as a Program Change Message, it changes to that setting.

Program change messageA MIDI message which, when received by a synth, tells the synth to change to that numbered program. Program Change is a two-byte message.

Program Number Programming FunctionOne of the Programming Functions in the LN-4. It allows you to send a different program change number from each output when a Master Program is selected.

Programming Mode One of the operating modes of the LN-4. In Programming Mode, which is entered by holding the Shift switch and pressing one of the numbered switches, you set the values for each Programming Function for each output in a Master Program.

Programming FunctionsThe variable control functions in the LN-4, accessed in Programming Mode. Each Programming Function controls one aspect of the total MIDI output of the LN-4. There are nine separate Programming Functions.

Serial transmissionThe procedure by which MIDI data is transmitted on a MIDI cable. Each MIDI message is sent consecutively, one after the other, one bit at a time.

Shift switchOne of the programming controls in the LN-4. The Shift switch is used to enter Programming Mode and to select between different Programming Functions.

Status byteThe unit of information in a MIDI word which identifies the data byte which follows it. A status byte tells the receiving MIDI device that the information (the data bytes) directly following the status byte will be applied to some particular parameter.

SustainA MIDI message which tells the receiving synth to allow its notes to play to their fullest extent. Sustain messages are usually produced by a controller's sustain pedal.Sustain is MIDI Controller number 64.

Sustain pedalAn input control device for a synthesizer or master controller, usually a simple footswitch which, when depressed, tells the synthesizer to sustain the sounds being played.Releasing the footswitch allows the sounds to decay.

Switch controller A MIDI control device which produces a simple "on or off message when pressed or released. Switch controllers in a MIDI system produce Switch controller messages, which are used to turn sustain on and off, increment or decrement programs, and so forth.Switch Controller numbers range from 64 to 127.

Transposition Programming FunctionOne of the Programming Functions in the LN-4. It allows you to set the relative pitch offset produced when playing the keyboard. A value of 36 means no offset. A transposition value of 37 for Output 2, for instance, will transpose the output up by one half step relative to a non-transposed output

Up Arrow switchOne of the programming controls in the LN-4. In Programming Mode, the Output Enable switch becomes the Up Arrow switch and is used to scroll up through values used in the various Programming Functions. Values for Programming Functions are selected by using the Up Arrow and Down Arrow switches.

Velocity curveOne of eight different keyboard responses available in the LN-4. Choosing a velocity curve sets the way that the LN-4 will produce MIDI velocity data in response to your playing.

Velocity Programming FunctionOne of the Programming Functions in the LN-4. It allows you to set a different velocity curve, or keyboard response, for each of the four outputs. Eight different velocity curves are available.

Velocity-sensitive soundA program or voice in a synthesizer that changes with respect to changes in MIDI velocity messages.

Volume knobOne of the performance controls in the LN-4. Rotating the knob produces a varying MIDI volume message.This message is sent from each of the four outputs. Each synth to be controlled must be set to receive MIDI Volume messages and to apply those messages to loudness or level.

ZoneA keyboard configuration in which different areas of the keyboard are assigned to different discrete MIDI channels.

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